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Ground (0.25 nM average concentration), the cell speed increased ,30 in comparison to

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Ground (0.25 nM average concentration), the cell speed increased ,30 in comparison to the control group. Further increasing EGF concentration to 8.33 nM inhibited this phenomenon. Figure 5C further demonstrate that EGF and SDF-1a cooperatively modulates tumor cell motility. Here, a ,9 speed increase is observed when the cells are in the presence of SDF-1a only, and 11 increase when the cells are in the presence of EGF only, but a ,30 increase when both SDF-1a and EGF are present. It should be noted that this motility enhancement is abrogated at high EGF concentration (8.3 nM) when all the EGFR receptors are saturated. Cross signaling between 15481974 CXCR4 and EGFR has been found to stimulate cancer cell growth previously [50], however its impact on cancer cell migration in 3D microenvironment has not been explored [18]. Results presented here demonstrate the capability of a 3D microfluidic in vitro model in presenting complex Title Loaded From File chemical gradients to cancer cells, and the importance of the cross signaling between two important receptors CXCR4 and EGFR on tumor cell dissemination. In summary, we present experimental work on how breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) were regulated by single or dual gradients in 3D environment to drive directed invasion, which was previously unknown. We demonstrated that tumor cell chemoinFigure 5. Cooperative roles of EGF and SDF-1a in tumor cell chemoinvasion. Average cell velocity Vx (A) and speed U (B) in the presence of a SDF-1a gradient of 111 nM/mm and a uniform EGF concentration of 0, 0.25 or 8.33 nM. Control conditions were without SDF-1a and EGF. C. Average cell speed under indicated conditions. The stars were obtained using a nonparametric t-test compared to the 1315463 control group (Mann-Whitney test with * for 0.01,p,0.05, ** for 0.001,p,0.01, and *** for p,0.001). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068422.gbehavior depend critically on the integrin binding sites. In 3D, motile MDA-MB-231 cells displayed mostly amoeboid-like (or rounded) cell morphology (See Figure 2), and they migrated by squeezing through the collagen fiber pores. For leukocytes in steady-state conditions, amoeboid cell migration within a 3D environment has been found to be integrin-independent [29]. It has also been reported that the organization of focal adhesion proteins may be different in 2D vs. 3D conditions [47]. Further studies controlling integrin expression will be needed to elucidate the differential roles of integrin in 2D versus 3D chemoinvasion. Using a 2D microfluidic model, it was reported that EGF gradient steepness played a critical role in MDA-MB-231 cellRoles of Two Cytokines in Tumor Cell Title Loaded From File Migrationvasion in SDF-1a (ligand to CXCR4) gradients follows a general ligand ?receptor binding dynamics, highlighting the importance of the ligand ?receptor association constant KD . Not only EGF gradients alone do not cause chemoinvasion, the presence of EGF background abrogate the chemoinvasive behavior of tumor cells in SDF-1a gradients; in contrast to the observations in a 2D environment [18,42]. Cooperatively, EGF and SDF-1a modulates tumor cell motility. This work highlights the importance of studying tumor cell chemoinvasion within a physiologically realistic, 3D, microenvironment, and provides a general framework for future data driven theoretical modeling of the 3D tumor cell chemoinvasion processes within a complex microenvironment.The channel width is 400 mm and the time between two consecutive images is 8 minutes. (AVI)Movie S2 Tracki.Ground (0.25 nM average concentration), the cell speed increased ,30 in comparison to the control group. Further increasing EGF concentration to 8.33 nM inhibited this phenomenon. Figure 5C further demonstrate that EGF and SDF-1a cooperatively modulates tumor cell motility. Here, a ,9 speed increase is observed when the cells are in the presence of SDF-1a only, and 11 increase when the cells are in the presence of EGF only, but a ,30 increase when both SDF-1a and EGF are present. It should be noted that this motility enhancement is abrogated at high EGF concentration (8.3 nM) when all the EGFR receptors are saturated. Cross signaling between 15481974 CXCR4 and EGFR has been found to stimulate cancer cell growth previously [50], however its impact on cancer cell migration in 3D microenvironment has not been explored [18]. Results presented here demonstrate the capability of a 3D microfluidic in vitro model in presenting complex chemical gradients to cancer cells, and the importance of the cross signaling between two important receptors CXCR4 and EGFR on tumor cell dissemination. In summary, we present experimental work on how breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) were regulated by single or dual gradients in 3D environment to drive directed invasion, which was previously unknown. We demonstrated that tumor cell chemoinFigure 5. Cooperative roles of EGF and SDF-1a in tumor cell chemoinvasion. Average cell velocity Vx (A) and speed U (B) in the presence of a SDF-1a gradient of 111 nM/mm and a uniform EGF concentration of 0, 0.25 or 8.33 nM. Control conditions were without SDF-1a and EGF. C. Average cell speed under indicated conditions. The stars were obtained using a nonparametric t-test compared to the 1315463 control group (Mann-Whitney test with * for 0.01,p,0.05, ** for 0.001,p,0.01, and *** for p,0.001). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068422.gbehavior depend critically on the integrin binding sites. In 3D, motile MDA-MB-231 cells displayed mostly amoeboid-like (or rounded) cell morphology (See Figure 2), and they migrated by squeezing through the collagen fiber pores. For leukocytes in steady-state conditions, amoeboid cell migration within a 3D environment has been found to be integrin-independent [29]. It has also been reported that the organization of focal adhesion proteins may be different in 2D vs. 3D conditions [47]. Further studies controlling integrin expression will be needed to elucidate the differential roles of integrin in 2D versus 3D chemoinvasion. Using a 2D microfluidic model, it was reported that EGF gradient steepness played a critical role in MDA-MB-231 cellRoles of Two Cytokines in Tumor Cell Migrationvasion in SDF-1a (ligand to CXCR4) gradients follows a general ligand ?receptor binding dynamics, highlighting the importance of the ligand ?receptor association constant KD . Not only EGF gradients alone do not cause chemoinvasion, the presence of EGF background abrogate the chemoinvasive behavior of tumor cells in SDF-1a gradients; in contrast to the observations in a 2D environment [18,42]. Cooperatively, EGF and SDF-1a modulates tumor cell motility. This work highlights the importance of studying tumor cell chemoinvasion within a physiologically realistic, 3D, microenvironment, and provides a general framework for future data driven theoretical modeling of the 3D tumor cell chemoinvasion processes within a complex microenvironment.The channel width is 400 mm and the time between two consecutive images is 8 minutes. (AVI)Movie S2 Tracki.

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