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Enotes p,0.05 from the baseline. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049069.gEffects of Fluoxetine

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Enotes p,0.05 from the baseline. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049069.gEffects of GNE-7915 price Fluoxetine on Blood CellsAnimal experiments strongly suggest a role for the involvement of blood components in DCS [2,24,29]. We found that platelet and red cell counts were significantly reduced after decompression in controls but not in treated mice. Previous animal studies reported that platelet count falls following decompression [24] and can be considered to be a relevant index for evaluating decompression stress [25]. The drop in platelet count is usually attributed to clotting activity following exposure of the collagen under bubble-damaged endothelial cells in the blood vessels [30,31,32], or direct interaction between bubbles and platelets [33,34]. Our data did not reveal a drop in platelet count following decompression in treated animals, thus suggesting a beneficial role of fluoxetine in the coagulation pathway. Antidepressants, particularly selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, can have a direct influence on serotonin platelet levels. 5-HT is usually a vasodilator, becoming a vasoconstrictor when the endothelium is damaged, being taken up from plasma and stored in platelet granules. Upon initiation of platelet aggregation, 5HT is released into the blood and activates 5-HT2A receptors on the platelet membrane, which enhances the aggregation process. 5-HT per se is a weak activator, but dose-dependently enhances platelet activation induced by adenosine diphosphate [35]. Since Fluoxetine may inhibit platelet uptake of 5-HT and cause platelet depletion, this can inhibit 5-HT-induced platelet aggregation amplification, and therefore explain why we did not observe a drop in platelet count after decompression in the treated group. A different interpretation can be proposed concerning red-cells. Several authors have observed phenomena of blood sludging and red-cell fragmentation/deformation following rapid decompression in animal models. The formation of red-cell aggregates appears to 22948146 be associated with flow stasis [24,36]. The red-cell count following decompression did not drop in treated animals, suggesting that blood sludging was limited in this group. Previous studies found that fluoxetine may have a positive impact on hemorheologic measures of stress-hemoconcentration by improving increased blood viscosity [37]. This effect could be mediatedby fluoxetine inhibition of volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC), which are important regulators of various cell functions and has been described in neuronal and endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. VRAC are critically involved in volume regulation and maintain the osmotic composition of the fluid compartments in the central nervous system [38,39]. Concerning leukocytes, we found that leukocyte count decreased after decompression, both in the control and treated groups. Experimental observations in DCS suggest that GM6001 damage to the vascular endothelium by gas bubbles may provoke an inflammatory and immune response resulting in leukocyte activation [40]. The fall in leukocyte count after DCS is usually attributed to diapedesis [41,42]. Neutrophils are the first inflammatory cells to arrive at the site in neurological tissue. Through their properties and phagocytic effect, they remove tissue debris and restore homeostasis. However, according to the degree of recruitment, neutrophils may be responsible for deleterious effects through the release of proteases and reactive oxygen species [43]. W.Enotes p,0.05 from the baseline. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049069.gEffects of Fluoxetine on Blood CellsAnimal experiments strongly suggest a role for the involvement of blood components in DCS [2,24,29]. We found that platelet and red cell counts were significantly reduced after decompression in controls but not in treated mice. Previous animal studies reported that platelet count falls following decompression [24] and can be considered to be a relevant index for evaluating decompression stress [25]. The drop in platelet count is usually attributed to clotting activity following exposure of the collagen under bubble-damaged endothelial cells in the blood vessels [30,31,32], or direct interaction between bubbles and platelets [33,34]. Our data did not reveal a drop in platelet count following decompression in treated animals, thus suggesting a beneficial role of fluoxetine in the coagulation pathway. Antidepressants, particularly selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, can have a direct influence on serotonin platelet levels. 5-HT is usually a vasodilator, becoming a vasoconstrictor when the endothelium is damaged, being taken up from plasma and stored in platelet granules. Upon initiation of platelet aggregation, 5HT is released into the blood and activates 5-HT2A receptors on the platelet membrane, which enhances the aggregation process. 5-HT per se is a weak activator, but dose-dependently enhances platelet activation induced by adenosine diphosphate [35]. Since Fluoxetine may inhibit platelet uptake of 5-HT and cause platelet depletion, this can inhibit 5-HT-induced platelet aggregation amplification, and therefore explain why we did not observe a drop in platelet count after decompression in the treated group. A different interpretation can be proposed concerning red-cells. Several authors have observed phenomena of blood sludging and red-cell fragmentation/deformation following rapid decompression in animal models. The formation of red-cell aggregates appears to 22948146 be associated with flow stasis [24,36]. The red-cell count following decompression did not drop in treated animals, suggesting that blood sludging was limited in this group. Previous studies found that fluoxetine may have a positive impact on hemorheologic measures of stress-hemoconcentration by improving increased blood viscosity [37]. This effect could be mediatedby fluoxetine inhibition of volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC), which are important regulators of various cell functions and has been described in neuronal and endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. VRAC are critically involved in volume regulation and maintain the osmotic composition of the fluid compartments in the central nervous system [38,39]. Concerning leukocytes, we found that leukocyte count decreased after decompression, both in the control and treated groups. Experimental observations in DCS suggest that damage to the vascular endothelium by gas bubbles may provoke an inflammatory and immune response resulting in leukocyte activation [40]. The fall in leukocyte count after DCS is usually attributed to diapedesis [41,42]. Neutrophils are the first inflammatory cells to arrive at the site in neurological tissue. Through their properties and phagocytic effect, they remove tissue debris and restore homeostasis. However, according to the degree of recruitment, neutrophils may be responsible for deleterious effects through the release of proteases and reactive oxygen species [43]. W.

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