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Shown that the two 41,188-bp plasmids are completely identical. Subsequent annotation

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Shown that the two 41,188-bp plasmids are completely purchase GSK429286A identical. Subsequent annotation of the plasmid, designated as pTR3/4, revealed 52 CDS (Figure 1). The nucleotide sequence of pTR3/4 is very similar to p271A, a 35,957-bp NDM-1 plasmid identified in E. coli 271 from a patient following medical transfer from a hospital in Bangladesh to Australia (GenBank: accession no. NC_015872 and [22]. Sequence comparison indicates the major difference between pTR3/4 and p271A is an additional 5.2-kb region containing hypothetical protein genes between repA and the stbABC genes in our plasmid. The genes resident in the 5.2-kb region represent the unique CUP (conserved upstream repeat)-controlled regulon ofPlasmid SequencingDNA sequencing of the NDM-1-carrying plasmids was performed with a whole genome shotgun approach using 3-kb paired-end libraries [19]. DNA fragments of about 3-kb in length were recovered after hydrodynamic shearing and purified using size exclusion beads (AMPure, Agencourt). The DNA fragments were subsequently linked to adaptors and circularized, thenPlasmids Encoding blaNDM-1 in K. pneumoniaeTable 1. Antimicrobial susceptibility test among blaNDM-1 carrying isolates and their transconjugants.AntibioticsMinimal GW0742 inhibitory concentration (mg/ml) 43320 TCJ-P1 32 128 32 64 128 128 128 128 128 128 32 #4 8 4 #1 #4 #4 #1 44951 32 128 32 64 128 128 128 128 128 128 32 32 16 16 4 32 32 8 TCJ-P2 32 128 32 64 128 128 64 128 128 128 32 #4 4 2 #1 #4 #4 #Ampicillin piperacillin/tazobactam Cefazolin Cefpodoxime Cefoxitin Cefotaxime Cefotaxime/clavulanate Ceftazidime Ceftazidime/clavulanate Ceftriaxone Cefepime Aztreonam Imipenem Meropenem Ciprofloxacin Gentamicin Tetracycline Trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole{32 128 32 64 128 128 128 128 128 128 32 32 16 16 4 32 32inverted repeats (blue and underlined in Figure 2) [23]. An 89-bp incomplete version, which consists of only the right end of the 257bp element (11 differences in 89-bp, shown in lowercase in Figure 2), including one of the 39-bp IR, was found at the other side of the NDM-1 region. The 39-bp imperfect IR (6 differences) associated with these elements are different from the 38-bp IR of the nearby Tn5403. Compared to pNDM-HK and DVR22, the trpF pseudogenes in pTR3/4 and p271A were all truncated by this IR-associated element, of which the left extremity is further truncated by the ISSen4. We hypothesize that the 257-bp element and the 89-bp element (marked yellow and sequence shown in the boxes in Figure 2) may be the remains of an unknown IS that transposed into a progenitorial sequence similar to that of the E. coli DVR22.DiscussionA diversity of blaNDM-1 plasmids have been observed in different published studies. Although plasmid carrying blaNDM-1 was first described in K. pneumoniae, the plasmid incompatibility type was not determined in that study [13]. Subsequent studies revealed plasmid scaffolds of IncL/M type in Hong Kong [14], IncA/C type in Japan [25], IncN2 type from Bangladesh [22], IncF, type in India [26], and recently IncP type in China [9]. In this study, two isolates carrying blaNDM-1 on plasmids similar to IncN2 were identified in two patients who were not epidemiologically linked to each other (Figure 1). These two isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics (Table 1). Transconjugants showed resistance only to all tested b-lactams except aztreonam. Thus, chromosomal and/or other plasmid-mediated resistance to ant.Shown that the two 41,188-bp plasmids are completely identical. Subsequent annotation of the plasmid, designated as pTR3/4, revealed 52 CDS (Figure 1). The nucleotide sequence of pTR3/4 is very similar to p271A, a 35,957-bp NDM-1 plasmid identified in E. coli 271 from a patient following medical transfer from a hospital in Bangladesh to Australia (GenBank: accession no. NC_015872 and [22]. Sequence comparison indicates the major difference between pTR3/4 and p271A is an additional 5.2-kb region containing hypothetical protein genes between repA and the stbABC genes in our plasmid. The genes resident in the 5.2-kb region represent the unique CUP (conserved upstream repeat)-controlled regulon ofPlasmid SequencingDNA sequencing of the NDM-1-carrying plasmids was performed with a whole genome shotgun approach using 3-kb paired-end libraries [19]. DNA fragments of about 3-kb in length were recovered after hydrodynamic shearing and purified using size exclusion beads (AMPure, Agencourt). The DNA fragments were subsequently linked to adaptors and circularized, thenPlasmids Encoding blaNDM-1 in K. pneumoniaeTable 1. Antimicrobial susceptibility test among blaNDM-1 carrying isolates and their transconjugants.AntibioticsMinimal inhibitory concentration (mg/ml) 43320 TCJ-P1 32 128 32 64 128 128 128 128 128 128 32 #4 8 4 #1 #4 #4 #1 44951 32 128 32 64 128 128 128 128 128 128 32 32 16 16 4 32 32 8 TCJ-P2 32 128 32 64 128 128 64 128 128 128 32 #4 4 2 #1 #4 #4 #Ampicillin piperacillin/tazobactam Cefazolin Cefpodoxime Cefoxitin Cefotaxime Cefotaxime/clavulanate Ceftazidime Ceftazidime/clavulanate Ceftriaxone Cefepime Aztreonam Imipenem Meropenem Ciprofloxacin Gentamicin Tetracycline Trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole{32 128 32 64 128 128 128 128 128 128 32 32 16 16 4 32 32inverted repeats (blue and underlined in Figure 2) [23]. An 89-bp incomplete version, which consists of only the right end of the 257bp element (11 differences in 89-bp, shown in lowercase in Figure 2), including one of the 39-bp IR, was found at the other side of the NDM-1 region. The 39-bp imperfect IR (6 differences) associated with these elements are different from the 38-bp IR of the nearby Tn5403. Compared to pNDM-HK and DVR22, the trpF pseudogenes in pTR3/4 and p271A were all truncated by this IR-associated element, of which the left extremity is further truncated by the ISSen4. We hypothesize that the 257-bp element and the 89-bp element (marked yellow and sequence shown in the boxes in Figure 2) may be the remains of an unknown IS that transposed into a progenitorial sequence similar to that of the E. coli DVR22.DiscussionA diversity of blaNDM-1 plasmids have been observed in different published studies. Although plasmid carrying blaNDM-1 was first described in K. pneumoniae, the plasmid incompatibility type was not determined in that study [13]. Subsequent studies revealed plasmid scaffolds of IncL/M type in Hong Kong [14], IncA/C type in Japan [25], IncN2 type from Bangladesh [22], IncF, type in India [26], and recently IncP type in China [9]. In this study, two isolates carrying blaNDM-1 on plasmids similar to IncN2 were identified in two patients who were not epidemiologically linked to each other (Figure 1). These two isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics (Table 1). Transconjugants showed resistance only to all tested b-lactams except aztreonam. Thus, chromosomal and/or other plasmid-mediated resistance to ant.

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