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Ority of endocrine cells co-expressed both hormones in the NT19 condition

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Ority of endocrine cells co-expressed both hormones in the NT19 condition, which is indicative of an immature differentiation state and compatible with a default differentiation pathway. An important aspect that has not been previously studied refers to the generally accepted notion that prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids results in the reprogramming of acinar cells into hepatic-like cells [15,53]. In our study, the drastic increase in digestive enzymes was not accompanied by a strong rise of hepatic markers (Fig. S1A) and the generated acinar progenitors did not express hepatic Afp and Gys2 (Fig. 5), further indicating that the produced cells maintain their pancreatic identity. Moreover, the fact that in our murine model Cpa1, Chymo and Amyl Indolactam V expression was not affected by BMP inhibition (stage 2, Fig. 3A and data not shown) argues against a hepatic origin in our conditions [37].Pancreatic Acinar Differentiation of Mouse ESCFigure 5. Immunofluorescent analysis of differentiated cell cultures. Staining was performed for Chymo (a , j), Amyl (a , h ), Cpa1 (d ), Rbpjl (f), Pdx1 (g), Afp (h ), Gys2 (j), Ins (k ) and Gluc (k ) in NT19 (a, d, h, k) and T19 cultures (b , e , i , l) as indicated. Nuclei were stained inPancreatic Acinar Differentiation of Mouse ESCblue. Negative controls (m ) were performed with irrelevant antibodies against rabbit (r), mouse (m), goat (g) or guinea pig (gp) as indicated. Scale bars: a , 50 mm; c , 10 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054243.gAlthough the 57773-63-4 chemical information directed protocol was more selective and improved the level of induction of digestive enzymes compared to our previous methods, the acinar-like cells were still immature. A complementary strategy to soluble factor-induced differentiation for the generation of functional cell types includes the gain of function of regulatory genes playing a key role during in vivo embryonic development. Previously, we showed that combined Ptf1a and Mist1 expression favours the acquisition of an acinar phenotype [11]. However, the overexpression of Ptf1a (alonewithout the other members of PTF1) only resulted in a strong induction of early digestive enzymes (Cpa1, ChymoB1) but not of those reported to be activated at later stages (Amyl, Ela1) [11,31]. The present findings support that a Ptf1a-Rbpjl complex is required for the acquisition of a mature acinar phenotype. Thus, Ptf1a and Rbpjl alone could moderately regulate the expression 10457188 of early digestive enzymes but it was when co-expressed that the level of induction increased substantially (Fig. 7A). Importantly, other Rbpjl-dependent secretory enzymes such as Prss3, Cel and ElaFigure 6. Characterization of transgene expression in undifferentiated and differentiated ESC lines. A) Analysis of transgene expression in RBPL-ES. Undifferentiated RBPL-ES were stained by immunofluorescence with an anti-Rbpjl 16402044 antibody or an irrelevant one (green) and with Tropo3 (red) to label nuclei. GFP expression in GFP-ES cells was analyzed by confocal microscopy. The engineered ESC lines displayed a normal karyotype and retained their self-renewal capacity (not shown). Scale bars, 50 mm. B) Rbpjl mRNA levels of clone # 50 were comparable to those of mouse adult pancreas by qRT-PCR. C) Immunofluorescence analysis of Ptf1a expression and relocalization in differentiating ESC infected with Lv-Ptf1a-ER and treated with DMSO (2) or with Tamox (+), two days after. Ptf1a expression is shown in green while the nuclei are stained in red. Asterisks (*) show nu.Ority of endocrine cells co-expressed both hormones in the NT19 condition, which is indicative of an immature differentiation state and compatible with a default differentiation pathway. An important aspect that has not been previously studied refers to the generally accepted notion that prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids results in the reprogramming of acinar cells into hepatic-like cells [15,53]. In our study, the drastic increase in digestive enzymes was not accompanied by a strong rise of hepatic markers (Fig. S1A) and the generated acinar progenitors did not express hepatic Afp and Gys2 (Fig. 5), further indicating that the produced cells maintain their pancreatic identity. Moreover, the fact that in our murine model Cpa1, Chymo and Amyl expression was not affected by BMP inhibition (stage 2, Fig. 3A and data not shown) argues against a hepatic origin in our conditions [37].Pancreatic Acinar Differentiation of Mouse ESCFigure 5. Immunofluorescent analysis of differentiated cell cultures. Staining was performed for Chymo (a , j), Amyl (a , h ), Cpa1 (d ), Rbpjl (f), Pdx1 (g), Afp (h ), Gys2 (j), Ins (k ) and Gluc (k ) in NT19 (a, d, h, k) and T19 cultures (b , e , i , l) as indicated. Nuclei were stained inPancreatic Acinar Differentiation of Mouse ESCblue. Negative controls (m ) were performed with irrelevant antibodies against rabbit (r), mouse (m), goat (g) or guinea pig (gp) as indicated. Scale bars: a , 50 mm; c , 10 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054243.gAlthough the directed protocol was more selective and improved the level of induction of digestive enzymes compared to our previous methods, the acinar-like cells were still immature. A complementary strategy to soluble factor-induced differentiation for the generation of functional cell types includes the gain of function of regulatory genes playing a key role during in vivo embryonic development. Previously, we showed that combined Ptf1a and Mist1 expression favours the acquisition of an acinar phenotype [11]. However, the overexpression of Ptf1a (alonewithout the other members of PTF1) only resulted in a strong induction of early digestive enzymes (Cpa1, ChymoB1) but not of those reported to be activated at later stages (Amyl, Ela1) [11,31]. The present findings support that a Ptf1a-Rbpjl complex is required for the acquisition of a mature acinar phenotype. Thus, Ptf1a and Rbpjl alone could moderately regulate the expression 10457188 of early digestive enzymes but it was when co-expressed that the level of induction increased substantially (Fig. 7A). Importantly, other Rbpjl-dependent secretory enzymes such as Prss3, Cel and ElaFigure 6. Characterization of transgene expression in undifferentiated and differentiated ESC lines. A) Analysis of transgene expression in RBPL-ES. Undifferentiated RBPL-ES were stained by immunofluorescence with an anti-Rbpjl 16402044 antibody or an irrelevant one (green) and with Tropo3 (red) to label nuclei. GFP expression in GFP-ES cells was analyzed by confocal microscopy. The engineered ESC lines displayed a normal karyotype and retained their self-renewal capacity (not shown). Scale bars, 50 mm. B) Rbpjl mRNA levels of clone # 50 were comparable to those of mouse adult pancreas by qRT-PCR. C) Immunofluorescence analysis of Ptf1a expression and relocalization in differentiating ESC infected with Lv-Ptf1a-ER and treated with DMSO (2) or with Tamox (+), two days after. Ptf1a expression is shown in green while the nuclei are stained in red. Asterisks (*) show nu.

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