Al tests of balance, such as the Berg Balance scale [54]. Of

Al tests of balance, such as the Berg Balance scale [54]. Of the studies included in this review, five (19 ) reported assessing standing balance or walking stability while patients were not medicated [14, 24, 33, 38, 40], 9 (35 ) assessed patients on-medication [18?1, 30, 31, 35, 36, 39] and three (12 ) assessed patients in both on and off states [17, 22, 32]. Of the remaining studies, six (22 ) assessed patients who were not yet being medicated for PD [13, 25?9], while three (12 ) did not report whether their participants were on or off medication at the time of testing [23, 34, 37]. Interestingly, of the studies not reporting differences in standing balance or walking stability between different groups of PD patients and/or healthy controls, two assessed patients while they were off medication [24, 38], while the other did not report whether patients were assessed on or off medication [23]. Of the three studies that assessed patients on and off medication, only two statistically compared their presented outcomes for the two conditions [22, 32]. For a group of idiopathic PD patients, it was reported that the length and maximal distance of postural sway was significantly increased during normal stance, when patients were assessed on medication [32], which would typically be interpreted as a greater amount of sway during the medicated state. During walking, Weiss et al. [22] reported a significant reduction in the width of the dominant harmonic in the acceleration signal when patients were tested on medication, which represented less variability in the gait patterns of medicated patients. While there is a clear need for further research in this area, the presented findings suggest that wearable Actinomycin D web sensors can be effectively used to evaluate changes in standing balance and walking stability for different patients who are assessed with or without anti-parkinsonian medication. Considering that 66 of individuals with PD fall at least once in a given year [11, 55] and nearly 50 of these falls occur during locomotion [56, 57], assessing walking stability and falls risk is critical to ensure that high-risk patients can be easily identified by clinicians. However, to date, there is a paucity of research evaluating the capacity for wearable sensors to identify people with PD who are at a higher risk of prospectively falling. Two of the studies included in this review compared people with PD who retrospectively reported having no falls (non-fallers) to those who reported falling at least once (fallers) in the previous 12 months [30, 31]. Both of these studies reported that PD fallers had less rhythmic movements for the pelvis or lower trunk (as assessed using the HR) in both the anterior-posterior (forward-backward) and vertical directions compared with PD non-fallers [30, 31] and controls [30]. While their retrospective nature makes it difficult to determine whether these deficits contribute to the patients falling or whether they are perhaps a consequence of an increased fear of future falls, thePLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123705 April 20,18 /Wearable Sensors for Assessing Balance and Gait in Parkinson’s Diseaseresults of these studies provide some support for the use of wearable sensors for ACY-241 supplier screening patients for falls risk. Nevertheless, further prospective research is needed to confirm whether sensor-based measures of standing balance or walking stability are suitable for the assessing falls risk and predicting future falls in this po.Al tests of balance, such as the Berg Balance scale [54]. Of the studies included in this review, five (19 ) reported assessing standing balance or walking stability while patients were not medicated [14, 24, 33, 38, 40], 9 (35 ) assessed patients on-medication [18?1, 30, 31, 35, 36, 39] and three (12 ) assessed patients in both on and off states [17, 22, 32]. Of the remaining studies, six (22 ) assessed patients who were not yet being medicated for PD [13, 25?9], while three (12 ) did not report whether their participants were on or off medication at the time of testing [23, 34, 37]. Interestingly, of the studies not reporting differences in standing balance or walking stability between different groups of PD patients and/or healthy controls, two assessed patients while they were off medication [24, 38], while the other did not report whether patients were assessed on or off medication [23]. Of the three studies that assessed patients on and off medication, only two statistically compared their presented outcomes for the two conditions [22, 32]. For a group of idiopathic PD patients, it was reported that the length and maximal distance of postural sway was significantly increased during normal stance, when patients were assessed on medication [32], which would typically be interpreted as a greater amount of sway during the medicated state. During walking, Weiss et al. [22] reported a significant reduction in the width of the dominant harmonic in the acceleration signal when patients were tested on medication, which represented less variability in the gait patterns of medicated patients. While there is a clear need for further research in this area, the presented findings suggest that wearable sensors can be effectively used to evaluate changes in standing balance and walking stability for different patients who are assessed with or without anti-parkinsonian medication. Considering that 66 of individuals with PD fall at least once in a given year [11, 55] and nearly 50 of these falls occur during locomotion [56, 57], assessing walking stability and falls risk is critical to ensure that high-risk patients can be easily identified by clinicians. However, to date, there is a paucity of research evaluating the capacity for wearable sensors to identify people with PD who are at a higher risk of prospectively falling. Two of the studies included in this review compared people with PD who retrospectively reported having no falls (non-fallers) to those who reported falling at least once (fallers) in the previous 12 months [30, 31]. Both of these studies reported that PD fallers had less rhythmic movements for the pelvis or lower trunk (as assessed using the HR) in both the anterior-posterior (forward-backward) and vertical directions compared with PD non-fallers [30, 31] and controls [30]. While their retrospective nature makes it difficult to determine whether these deficits contribute to the patients falling or whether they are perhaps a consequence of an increased fear of future falls, thePLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123705 April 20,18 /Wearable Sensors for Assessing Balance and Gait in Parkinson’s Diseaseresults of these studies provide some support for the use of wearable sensors for screening patients for falls risk. Nevertheless, further prospective research is needed to confirm whether sensor-based measures of standing balance or walking stability are suitable for the assessing falls risk and predicting future falls in this po.

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