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St and philosopher Herbert Spencer in developing a system of hierarchy

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St and philosopher Herbert Spencer in developing a system of hierarchy of psychological functions, each of these functions having a different “coefficient of reality.” In Janet’s view, an ABT-737 chemical information individual could potentially have a large amount of mental energy but be unable to use this within the higher mental functions. With high “psychological tension,” however, he could Actinomycin IVMedChemExpress Dactinomycin concentrate and unify psychological phenomena,8. See also: TNA, FD2/20, Report of the Medical Research Council for the year 1933?4, London: HMSO (1935), p. 105. 9. TNA, FD6/3, Medical Research Council Minute Book, January 26, 1927 to June 19, 1936, October 26, 1934, it. 163.JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES DOI 10.1002/jhbsORGAN EXTRACTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHIATRYthus, engaging in the highest function that of reality (Janet Raymond, 1903; Ellenberger, 1970, pp. 61?37; Valsiner Veer, 2000). Hoskins and Sleeper used this theory to explain the mental changes which followed from thyroid treatment arguing that vital drives and mental energy were altered through endocrine interventions which enabled patients to maintain a stable mental state (Hoskins Sleeper, 1929a). In 1938, Brazier published two articles in the Journal of Mental Science in conjunction with Russel Fraser, a Maudsley physician with a strong interest in endocrinology, and William Sargant, a Maudsley doctor and researcher who had trained with Edward Mapother and was a staunch advocate of physical treatments in psychiatry. These articles referenced Hoskins and Sleeper’s thyroid treatments but critiqued their reliance on psychological theory as a justification for their effectiveness. They claimed that “numerous workers have experimented with thyroid treatment in mental disorder” but these treatments had not been measured effectively (Sargant, Fraser, Brazier, 1938). Instead of relying upon psychological theory, they proposed recording electrical activity in the patient’s body as a measure of the efficacy of thyroid in treating mental illnesses. They claimed that thyroid could be useful in a range of illnesses such as: cases of recurrent katatonic excitement or stupor, cases of acute schizophrenia which exhibit a marked additional depressive component, and cases of depression which form part of a manic-depressive psychosis, or exhibit some depersonalisation, mild confusional features or retardation. Their interest in the depressive aspects of schizophrenia and the psychotic aspects of depression help to explain why they considered it possible to treat schizophrenia and psychosis with thyroid extract. In 1939, Golla took up a new position as director of the newly established Burden Neurological Institute (BNI) in Frenchay, Bristol. The institute was a private charity and Golla had considerable freedom to pursue his own research agenda. He recruited a team of young researchers (including Grey Walter who had worked at the Central Pathological Laboratory) specializing in electrophysiology and endocrinology (Hayward, 2004). By the outbreak of the Second World War, endocrine treatments had become significantly less popular among Maudsley psychiatrists. In their textbook, An Introduction to Physical Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry, Sargant and Eliot Slater, who had served as a medical officer at the Maudsley Hospital from 1931 and worked at Sutton Emergency Hospital during the war, took a critical line (Sargant Slater, 1944, pp. 128?34). They argued that hormones should not be used to trea.St and philosopher Herbert Spencer in developing a system of hierarchy of psychological functions, each of these functions having a different “coefficient of reality.” In Janet’s view, an individual could potentially have a large amount of mental energy but be unable to use this within the higher mental functions. With high “psychological tension,” however, he could concentrate and unify psychological phenomena,8. See also: TNA, FD2/20, Report of the Medical Research Council for the year 1933?4, London: HMSO (1935), p. 105. 9. TNA, FD6/3, Medical Research Council Minute Book, January 26, 1927 to June 19, 1936, October 26, 1934, it. 163.JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES DOI 10.1002/jhbsORGAN EXTRACTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHIATRYthus, engaging in the highest function that of reality (Janet Raymond, 1903; Ellenberger, 1970, pp. 61?37; Valsiner Veer, 2000). Hoskins and Sleeper used this theory to explain the mental changes which followed from thyroid treatment arguing that vital drives and mental energy were altered through endocrine interventions which enabled patients to maintain a stable mental state (Hoskins Sleeper, 1929a). In 1938, Brazier published two articles in the Journal of Mental Science in conjunction with Russel Fraser, a Maudsley physician with a strong interest in endocrinology, and William Sargant, a Maudsley doctor and researcher who had trained with Edward Mapother and was a staunch advocate of physical treatments in psychiatry. These articles referenced Hoskins and Sleeper’s thyroid treatments but critiqued their reliance on psychological theory as a justification for their effectiveness. They claimed that “numerous workers have experimented with thyroid treatment in mental disorder” but these treatments had not been measured effectively (Sargant, Fraser, Brazier, 1938). Instead of relying upon psychological theory, they proposed recording electrical activity in the patient’s body as a measure of the efficacy of thyroid in treating mental illnesses. They claimed that thyroid could be useful in a range of illnesses such as: cases of recurrent katatonic excitement or stupor, cases of acute schizophrenia which exhibit a marked additional depressive component, and cases of depression which form part of a manic-depressive psychosis, or exhibit some depersonalisation, mild confusional features or retardation. Their interest in the depressive aspects of schizophrenia and the psychotic aspects of depression help to explain why they considered it possible to treat schizophrenia and psychosis with thyroid extract. In 1939, Golla took up a new position as director of the newly established Burden Neurological Institute (BNI) in Frenchay, Bristol. The institute was a private charity and Golla had considerable freedom to pursue his own research agenda. He recruited a team of young researchers (including Grey Walter who had worked at the Central Pathological Laboratory) specializing in electrophysiology and endocrinology (Hayward, 2004). By the outbreak of the Second World War, endocrine treatments had become significantly less popular among Maudsley psychiatrists. In their textbook, An Introduction to Physical Methods of Treatment in Psychiatry, Sargant and Eliot Slater, who had served as a medical officer at the Maudsley Hospital from 1931 and worked at Sutton Emergency Hospital during the war, took a critical line (Sargant Slater, 1944, pp. 128?34). They argued that hormones should not be used to trea.

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