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Nal.pone.0125865 May 12, 2015 Perceived Morbidity and Healthcare-Seeking Pattern in Maldah, IndiaOR

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Nal.pone.0125865 May 12, 2015 Perceived Morbidity and Healthcare-Seeking Pattern in Maldah, IndiaOR = Odds ratio; 95 CI = 95 confidence interval; `-` Refer to situation where valid estimate for the Odds Ratio could not be determined owing to insufficient cell values.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125865.t14 /Perceived Morbidity and Healthcare-Seeking Pattern in Maldah, IndiaTable 5. Association (both unadjusted and adjusted) of self-perceived specific morbidity type, specific ailments and severity with respective careseeking pattern among recruited residents of Malda, West Bengal, India (N = 43999). Measurement (Unadj = Bivariate Adj = Multivariate) Care sought from (Ref = Non-qualified) Qualified, private sector practitioner OR (95 CI) Type of Self-perceived morbidity (most recent) Suffering from specific noncommunicable ailments (Based on last three episodes of ill-health) Non-communicable diseases (Ref = communicable) Acid peptic disorder Chronic obstructive ZM241385 cancer pulmonary disease Hypertension Diabetes Mellitus Anaemia Osteoarthritis Suffering from specific communicable ailments (Based on last 3 episodes of ill-health) Gastroenteritis Typhoid Respiratory tract infection Skin infections and related disorders Self-perceived severity (Ref = Mild) Basmisanil price Moderate Severe Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj OR = Odds ratio; 95 CI = 95 confidence interval doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125865.t005 2.31(2.18?.45) 2.31(2.16?.48) 0.47(0.43?.52) 0.41(0.37?.46) 1.96(1.62?.37) 1.80(1.46?.23) 3.24(2.72?.87) 1.94(1.60?.36) 4.94(3.55?.87) 0.75(0.59?.94) 0.84(0.66?.08) 0.84(0.70?.01) 0.72(0.59?.88) 0.33(0.29?.37) 0.28(0.24?.33) 2.53(1.85?.45) 2.86(2.04?.03) 0.43(0.40?.46) 0.35(0.32?.39) 0.63(0.54?.72) 0.65(0.55?.77) 1.28(1.15?.44) 1.32(1.16?.51) 3.32(3.06?.61) 3.16(2.86?.49) Qualified, Govt. sector practitioner p valuep value OR (95 CI)<.0001 1.48(1.37?.60) <.0001 <.0001 1.30(1.18?.42) <.0001 <.0001 0.37(0.32?.43) <.0001 <.0001 0.36(0.31?.43) <.0001 <.0001 2.10(1.65?.66) <.0001 <.0001 1.78(1.38?.31) <.0001 <.0001 1.82(1.42?.33) <.0001 <.0001 1.37(1.05?.79) 0.0202 <.0001 3.28(2.20?.91) <.0001 0.0123 0.80(0.58?.09) 0.1603 0.1714 0.94(0.68?.31) 0.7194 0.0641 0.67(0.51?.88) 0.0047 0.0014 0.58(0.43?.78) 0.0003 <.0001 0.64(0.56?.74) <.0001 <.0001 0.69(0.58?.81) <.0001 <.0001 3.48(2.43?.97) <.0001 <.0001 3.95(2.70?.79) <.0001 <.0001 0.44(0.40?.49) <.0001 <.0001 0.46(0.41?.52) <.0001 <.0001 0.84(0.70?.01) 0.0695 <.0001 0.84(0.69?.03) 0.1011 <.0001 1.14(0.97?.34) 0.1147 <.0001 1.10(0.92?.30) 0.2930 <.0001 2.07(1.84?.34) <.0001 <.0001 1.95(1.71?.24) <.7.73(5.62?0.64) <.0001 4.24(2.87?.27) <.DM [AORPrivate = 4.94(3.55?.87), AORGovt = 3.28(2.20?.91)], typhoid [AORPrivate = 2.86 (2.04?.03), AORGovt = 3.95(2.70?.79)]and NCDs [AORPrivate = 2.31(2.16?.48), AORGovt = 1.30(1.18?.42)] were more likely to visit qualified practitioners. Higher self-perceived disease severity [for moderate: AORPrivate = 1.32(1.16?.51); for severe: AORPrivate = 3.16(2.86?.49), AORGovt = 1.95(1.71?.24)] was also positively associated with visiting qualified practitioners. (Table 5)DiscussionThe socio-demographic distribution of the recruited population in Malda district was typically identical with a developing world poor-resource setting with potential loopholes in healthcare delivery system. The proportion of underprivileged class, poor education, rural residence, sedentary work, poor access to safe water, poor sa.Nal.pone.0125865 May 12, 2015 Perceived Morbidity and Healthcare-Seeking Pattern in Maldah, IndiaOR = Odds ratio; 95 CI = 95 confidence interval; `-` Refer to situation where valid estimate for the Odds Ratio could not be determined owing to insufficient cell values.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125865.t14 /Perceived Morbidity and Healthcare-Seeking Pattern in Maldah, IndiaTable 5. Association (both unadjusted and adjusted) of self-perceived specific morbidity type, specific ailments and severity with respective careseeking pattern among recruited residents of Malda, West Bengal, India (N = 43999). Measurement (Unadj = Bivariate Adj = Multivariate) Care sought from (Ref = Non-qualified) Qualified, private sector practitioner OR (95 CI) Type of Self-perceived morbidity (most recent) Suffering from specific noncommunicable ailments (Based on last three episodes of ill-health) Non-communicable diseases (Ref = communicable) Acid peptic disorder Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Hypertension Diabetes Mellitus Anaemia Osteoarthritis Suffering from specific communicable ailments (Based on last 3 episodes of ill-health) Gastroenteritis Typhoid Respiratory tract infection Skin infections and related disorders Self-perceived severity (Ref = Mild) Moderate Severe Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj Unadj Adj OR = Odds ratio; 95 CI = 95 confidence interval doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125865.t005 2.31(2.18?.45) 2.31(2.16?.48) 0.47(0.43?.52) 0.41(0.37?.46) 1.96(1.62?.37) 1.80(1.46?.23) 3.24(2.72?.87) 1.94(1.60?.36) 4.94(3.55?.87) 0.75(0.59?.94) 0.84(0.66?.08) 0.84(0.70?.01) 0.72(0.59?.88) 0.33(0.29?.37) 0.28(0.24?.33) 2.53(1.85?.45) 2.86(2.04?.03) 0.43(0.40?.46) 0.35(0.32?.39) 0.63(0.54?.72) 0.65(0.55?.77) 1.28(1.15?.44) 1.32(1.16?.51) 3.32(3.06?.61) 3.16(2.86?.49) Qualified, Govt. sector practitioner p valuep value OR (95 CI)<.0001 1.48(1.37?.60) <.0001 <.0001 1.30(1.18?.42) <.0001 <.0001 0.37(0.32?.43) <.0001 <.0001 0.36(0.31?.43) <.0001 <.0001 2.10(1.65?.66) <.0001 <.0001 1.78(1.38?.31) <.0001 <.0001 1.82(1.42?.33) <.0001 <.0001 1.37(1.05?.79) 0.0202 <.0001 3.28(2.20?.91) <.0001 0.0123 0.80(0.58?.09) 0.1603 0.1714 0.94(0.68?.31) 0.7194 0.0641 0.67(0.51?.88) 0.0047 0.0014 0.58(0.43?.78) 0.0003 <.0001 0.64(0.56?.74) <.0001 <.0001 0.69(0.58?.81) <.0001 <.0001 3.48(2.43?.97) <.0001 <.0001 3.95(2.70?.79) <.0001 <.0001 0.44(0.40?.49) <.0001 <.0001 0.46(0.41?.52) <.0001 <.0001 0.84(0.70?.01) 0.0695 <.0001 0.84(0.69?.03) 0.1011 <.0001 1.14(0.97?.34) 0.1147 <.0001 1.10(0.92?.30) 0.2930 <.0001 2.07(1.84?.34) <.0001 <.0001 1.95(1.71?.24) <.7.73(5.62?0.64) <.0001 4.24(2.87?.27) <.DM [AORPrivate = 4.94(3.55?.87), AORGovt = 3.28(2.20?.91)], typhoid [AORPrivate = 2.86 (2.04?.03), AORGovt = 3.95(2.70?.79)]and NCDs [AORPrivate = 2.31(2.16?.48), AORGovt = 1.30(1.18?.42)] were more likely to visit qualified practitioners. Higher self-perceived disease severity [for moderate: AORPrivate = 1.32(1.16?.51); for severe: AORPrivate = 3.16(2.86?.49), AORGovt = 1.95(1.71?.24)] was also positively associated with visiting qualified practitioners. (Table 5)DiscussionThe socio-demographic distribution of the recruited population in Malda district was typically identical with a developing world poor-resource setting with potential loopholes in healthcare delivery system. The proportion of underprivileged class, poor education, rural residence, sedentary work, poor access to safe water, poor sa.

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