Ioluminescence, a method with lower intrinsic toxicity than chemiluminescence, to excite

Ioluminescence, a method with lower intrinsic toxicity than chemiluminescence, to excite a PS for PDT. The emission of oxyluciferin, a luminescent species produced by the oxidation of luciferin by the luciferase enzyme, was used to locally excite the PS hypericin. By demonstrating the ability of a bioluminescence molecule to transfer energy and excite the PS, this group opened up new possibilities to initiate PDT in deeper tissues than were previously possible. Later, Theodossiou et al. investigated the capacity of the oxyluciferin to activate the PS rose Bengal in vitro and induce cell death in murine fibroblasts [55]. Although Schipper et al. has more recently contested these results [56], the viability of cells transfected with the luciferase gene was reduced to (11?2) when treated with 10 nM Rose Bengal. Schipper et al. strongly questioned the efficiency of the bioluminescence-activated PDT by showing that the light dose emitted by the bioluminescence probe (on the order of 10-9 mW.cm-2) was significantly lower than the doses typically employed in clinical trials for laser activated-PDT ( 50 mW.cm-2) [56]. Besides this fundamental concern, several follow up studies demonstrated improved 4-Hydroxytamoxifen molecular weight killing stemming from either bio- or chemi-luminescence activated PDT, highlighting our limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying these energy transfers since ostensibly the reduced energy densities emitted by the luminescent probes can still activate PS andhttp://www.thno.orgForward looking methodologies for deep tissue PDTTo overcome the poor penetration depth of visible light into tissue, several alternatives involving penetrating radiation have been proposed and will be discussed in this section. Because the PS requires a threshold number of incident photons to initiate the cytotoxic photochemistry, the overarching goal of deep tissue PDT is to create an energy source that can locally activate the PS even at deeper depths. This source could be either self-activated, e.g. bioluminescent, or be comprised of other forms of electromagnetic radiation, e.g., near-infrared radiation (NIR), X-rays or -rays that are known to penetrate more deeply into tissues compared to visible light (Fig. 1). In BFA web situations where the PS cannot be directly excited by penetrating radiation, a transducer, usually consisting of a nanoparticle (NP), may be used to locally absorb the incoming radiation and transfer part of its energy to activate the PS [50]. In this section, we will review how bioluminescence, NIR light, and X-rays or -rays can be used to initiate PDT in deep tissues.Chemi- and Bio-luminescent probes for PDTChemi- and bio-luminescent probes were the first self-emitters used to locally activate a PS in deep tissues. Both types of probes generate luminescent products, but contrary to chemiluminescence, the light emitted by bioluminescent probes is derivedTheranostics 2016, Vol. 6, Issueimpart cytotoxicity. There is an intrinsic toxicity associated with the use of bioluminescence probes, although it is lower than that induced by chemiluminescent probes. To decrease this toxicity, Zhao et al. reported the synthesis of microcapsules containing the bioluminescent probe D-luciferin [57]. Once activated, D-luciferin emits a broad luminescence (520-680nm) that strongly overlaps with the absorption spectra of the PS’s rose Bengal and hypericin. Microencapsulation decreased the direct toxicity of D-luciferin, in that MCF-7 cells treated directly with this for.Ioluminescence, a method with lower intrinsic toxicity than chemiluminescence, to excite a PS for PDT. The emission of oxyluciferin, a luminescent species produced by the oxidation of luciferin by the luciferase enzyme, was used to locally excite the PS hypericin. By demonstrating the ability of a bioluminescence molecule to transfer energy and excite the PS, this group opened up new possibilities to initiate PDT in deeper tissues than were previously possible. Later, Theodossiou et al. investigated the capacity of the oxyluciferin to activate the PS rose Bengal in vitro and induce cell death in murine fibroblasts [55]. Although Schipper et al. has more recently contested these results [56], the viability of cells transfected with the luciferase gene was reduced to (11?2) when treated with 10 nM Rose Bengal. Schipper et al. strongly questioned the efficiency of the bioluminescence-activated PDT by showing that the light dose emitted by the bioluminescence probe (on the order of 10-9 mW.cm-2) was significantly lower than the doses typically employed in clinical trials for laser activated-PDT ( 50 mW.cm-2) [56]. Besides this fundamental concern, several follow up studies demonstrated improved killing stemming from either bio- or chemi-luminescence activated PDT, highlighting our limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying these energy transfers since ostensibly the reduced energy densities emitted by the luminescent probes can still activate PS andhttp://www.thno.orgForward looking methodologies for deep tissue PDTTo overcome the poor penetration depth of visible light into tissue, several alternatives involving penetrating radiation have been proposed and will be discussed in this section. Because the PS requires a threshold number of incident photons to initiate the cytotoxic photochemistry, the overarching goal of deep tissue PDT is to create an energy source that can locally activate the PS even at deeper depths. This source could be either self-activated, e.g. bioluminescent, or be comprised of other forms of electromagnetic radiation, e.g., near-infrared radiation (NIR), X-rays or -rays that are known to penetrate more deeply into tissues compared to visible light (Fig. 1). In situations where the PS cannot be directly excited by penetrating radiation, a transducer, usually consisting of a nanoparticle (NP), may be used to locally absorb the incoming radiation and transfer part of its energy to activate the PS [50]. In this section, we will review how bioluminescence, NIR light, and X-rays or -rays can be used to initiate PDT in deep tissues.Chemi- and Bio-luminescent probes for PDTChemi- and bio-luminescent probes were the first self-emitters used to locally activate a PS in deep tissues. Both types of probes generate luminescent products, but contrary to chemiluminescence, the light emitted by bioluminescent probes is derivedTheranostics 2016, Vol. 6, Issueimpart cytotoxicity. There is an intrinsic toxicity associated with the use of bioluminescence probes, although it is lower than that induced by chemiluminescent probes. To decrease this toxicity, Zhao et al. reported the synthesis of microcapsules containing the bioluminescent probe D-luciferin [57]. Once activated, D-luciferin emits a broad luminescence (520-680nm) that strongly overlaps with the absorption spectra of the PS’s rose Bengal and hypericin. Microencapsulation decreased the direct toxicity of D-luciferin, in that MCF-7 cells treated directly with this for.

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