M 22?0 beats min-1 before aestivation to 12?7 beats min-1 by the end

M 22?0 beats min-1 before aestivation to 12?7 beats min-1 by the end of 1?.5 months in the mud [34], it is probable that a severe decrease in the rate of blood flow would have occurred. Thus, any mechanism that can prevent the formation of a thrombosis when the fish is inactive during aestivation would be of considerable survival value. Indeed, several genes related to blood coagulation, which included fibrinogen (7 clones), apolipoprotein H (8 clones) and serine proteinase inhibitor clade C (antithrombin) member 1 (serpinc1; 3 clones) were down-regulated in the liver of fish after 6 months of aestivation (Table 3) and this could signify a decrease in the tendency of blood clot formation.Maintenance phase: down-ICG-001 molecular weight regulation of sodSOD is an antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of two O2? to H2O2, and therefore plays a central role in antioxidation. An adaptive response against oxidative stress is often marked by the increased production of intracellular antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase to protect the macromolecules from the stress-induced damage. It was suggested that up-regulation of intracellular antioxidant enzymes during aestivation and hibernation protects against stress-related cellular injury [35,36]. However, the down-regulation in the mRNA expression of sod1 in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months of aestivation (Table 3) suggests that other antioxidant enzymes such as Bhmt1, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase or catalase may be involved and their activities would be sufficient to counteract the oxidative stress. Also, these results could be indicative of a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation due to a slower metabolic rate, including the rate of nitrogen metabolism.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121224 March 30,13 /Differential Gene Expression in the Liver of the African LungfishTable 4. Known transcripts found in the forward library (up-regulation) obtained by suppression subtractive hybridization PCR from the liver of Protopterus annectens after 1 day of arousal from 6 months of aestivation with fish aestivated for 6 months in air as the reference for comparison. Group and Gene Nitrogen metabolism argininosuccinate synthetase 1 Carbohydrate metabolism glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B fragment 1 Lipid metabolism acyl-CoA desaturase acd JZ575387 Salmo salar 2E-71 11 Fatty acid biosynthetic process, positive regulation of cholesterol esterification Lipid biosynthetic process Transport Lipid biosynthetic process gapdh aldob JZ575429 JZ575422 Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis Protopterus annectens 9E-34 4E-57 4 4 Glycolysis Glycolysis ass1 JZ575395 Xenopus laevis 3E-45 7 Arginine biosynthetic process Gene symbol P. annectens accession no. Homolog species Evalue No of clones Biological processesdesaturase 2 fatty acid-binding protein order Imatinib (Mesylate) stearoyl-CoA desaturase Amino acid, polyamine and nucleotide metabolism alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase inter-alpha (globulin) inhibitor H3 inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor, heavy chain 2 fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase ATP synthesis ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F0 complex, subunit G ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide Blood coagulation coagulation factor II Iron metabolism and transport ferritin light chain ferritin, middle subunit transferrin-a Protein synthesis,.M 22?0 beats min-1 before aestivation to 12?7 beats min-1 by the end of 1?.5 months in the mud [34], it is probable that a severe decrease in the rate of blood flow would have occurred. Thus, any mechanism that can prevent the formation of a thrombosis when the fish is inactive during aestivation would be of considerable survival value. Indeed, several genes related to blood coagulation, which included fibrinogen (7 clones), apolipoprotein H (8 clones) and serine proteinase inhibitor clade C (antithrombin) member 1 (serpinc1; 3 clones) were down-regulated in the liver of fish after 6 months of aestivation (Table 3) and this could signify a decrease in the tendency of blood clot formation.Maintenance phase: down-regulation of sodSOD is an antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of two O2? to H2O2, and therefore plays a central role in antioxidation. An adaptive response against oxidative stress is often marked by the increased production of intracellular antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase to protect the macromolecules from the stress-induced damage. It was suggested that up-regulation of intracellular antioxidant enzymes during aestivation and hibernation protects against stress-related cellular injury [35,36]. However, the down-regulation in the mRNA expression of sod1 in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months of aestivation (Table 3) suggests that other antioxidant enzymes such as Bhmt1, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase or catalase may be involved and their activities would be sufficient to counteract the oxidative stress. Also, these results could be indicative of a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation due to a slower metabolic rate, including the rate of nitrogen metabolism.PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121224 March 30,13 /Differential Gene Expression in the Liver of the African LungfishTable 4. Known transcripts found in the forward library (up-regulation) obtained by suppression subtractive hybridization PCR from the liver of Protopterus annectens after 1 day of arousal from 6 months of aestivation with fish aestivated for 6 months in air as the reference for comparison. Group and Gene Nitrogen metabolism argininosuccinate synthetase 1 Carbohydrate metabolism glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B fragment 1 Lipid metabolism acyl-CoA desaturase acd JZ575387 Salmo salar 2E-71 11 Fatty acid biosynthetic process, positive regulation of cholesterol esterification Lipid biosynthetic process Transport Lipid biosynthetic process gapdh aldob JZ575429 JZ575422 Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis Protopterus annectens 9E-34 4E-57 4 4 Glycolysis Glycolysis ass1 JZ575395 Xenopus laevis 3E-45 7 Arginine biosynthetic process Gene symbol P. annectens accession no. Homolog species Evalue No of clones Biological processesdesaturase 2 fatty acid-binding protein stearoyl-CoA desaturase Amino acid, polyamine and nucleotide metabolism alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase inter-alpha (globulin) inhibitor H3 inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor, heavy chain 2 fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase ATP synthesis ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F0 complex, subunit G ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide Blood coagulation coagulation factor II Iron metabolism and transport ferritin light chain ferritin, middle subunit transferrin-a Protein synthesis,.

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