, two-tailed). No significant correlation was revealed, but there was a correlation

, two-tailed). No significant correlation was revealed, but there was a correlation trend MK-571 (sodium salt)MedChemExpress MK-571 (sodium salt) between Urge and Difficulty (correlation coefficient ??.69 to ?0.60, median ??.15, t[36] ??.93, P ?0.061, two-tailed).fMRI dataNeural correlates of Urge. Significant positive correlations between Urge scores and neural activation were observed in the| Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2016, Vol. 11, No.right SMA and MK-571 (sodium salt) web bilateral MCC under the imitation condition (Table 1 and Figures 3 and 4), but no significant correlations were observed under the observation condition. Although some overlapping areas were observed between Urge and Familiarity, there were no overlapping areas between Urge and Rhythm or between Urge and Difficulty. Parts of the right SMA and bilateral MCC were specific for Urge, but were not involved in Familiarity (right SMA: t ?4.80, P < 0.001; right MCC: t ?4.54, P < 0.001; left MCC: t ?4.43, P < 0.001; Table 1 and Figure 5). Functional connectivity between Urge and imitation performance. PPI analysis revealed that the SMA exhibited greater functional connectivity with the bilateral occipital lobes, including the extrastriate body area (EBA), cerebellum, premotor area (PM), thalamus, putamen, inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right superior temporal sulcus (STS) under the imitation condition relative to the observation condition (Table 2 and Figure 6). Neural correlates of Familiarity, Difficulty and Rhythm. Significant positive correlations of neural activation with Urge, Familiarity, Difficulty and Rhythm scores are summarized in Table 3 and Figure 4. For the Familiarity score, there were significant positive correlations among the left angular gyrus (AG), left cuneus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and right post-central gyrus under the observation condition. Under the imitation condition, there were significant positive correlations among the mPFC, bilateral SFG, STS, MCC, left AG, left postcentral gyrus, left precuneus, right cuneus and right cerebellum. For the Difficulty score, there were significant positive correlations among the bilateral IPL, inferior temporal gyrus, SMA, precentral gyrus, right ACC, right AG and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) under the observation condition. Under the imitation condition, there were significant positive correlations among the bilateral SMA, middle frontal gyrus and STS. For the Rhythm score, there were significant positive correlations between the right cerebellum and right lingual gyrus under the observation condition. Under the imitation condition, there were significant positive correlations between the bilateral cerebellum and left STS.characteristics of the actions (Speed, Key motion, Motion type and Symmetry). In all cases, the Urge-specific areas were replicated under the imitation condition (Supplementary Figure S1).DiscussionThe present findings demonstrate positive correlations between activation of the right SMA and bilateral MCC with the strength of a subjects' self-evaluated urge to imitate meaningless hand actions. Activation in these areas could not be explained by explicit reasons for imitation or kinematic characteristics of the actions. Furthermore, PPI analyses revealed functional connectivity between the SMA and brain regions associated with imitation performance. Therefore, the present results suggest that activated regions are crucially involved in the imitation drive of unfamiliar meaningless actions and exhi., two-tailed). No significant correlation was revealed, but there was a correlation trend between Urge and Difficulty (correlation coefficient ??.69 to ?0.60, median ??.15, t[36] ??.93, P ?0.061, two-tailed).fMRI dataNeural correlates of Urge. Significant positive correlations between Urge scores and neural activation were observed in the| Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2016, Vol. 11, No.right SMA and bilateral MCC under the imitation condition (Table 1 and Figures 3 and 4), but no significant correlations were observed under the observation condition. Although some overlapping areas were observed between Urge and Familiarity, there were no overlapping areas between Urge and Rhythm or between Urge and Difficulty. Parts of the right SMA and bilateral MCC were specific for Urge, but were not involved in Familiarity (right SMA: t ?4.80, P < 0.001; right MCC: t ?4.54, P < 0.001; left MCC: t ?4.43, P < 0.001; Table 1 and Figure 5). Functional connectivity between Urge and imitation performance. PPI analysis revealed that the SMA exhibited greater functional connectivity with the bilateral occipital lobes, including the extrastriate body area (EBA), cerebellum, premotor area (PM), thalamus, putamen, inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right superior temporal sulcus (STS) under the imitation condition relative to the observation condition (Table 2 and Figure 6). Neural correlates of Familiarity, Difficulty and Rhythm. Significant positive correlations of neural activation with Urge, Familiarity, Difficulty and Rhythm scores are summarized in Table 3 and Figure 4. For the Familiarity score, there were significant positive correlations among the left angular gyrus (AG), left cuneus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and right post-central gyrus under the observation condition. Under the imitation condition, there were significant positive correlations among the mPFC, bilateral SFG, STS, MCC, left AG, left postcentral gyrus, left precuneus, right cuneus and right cerebellum. For the Difficulty score, there were significant positive correlations among the bilateral IPL, inferior temporal gyrus, SMA, precentral gyrus, right ACC, right AG and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) under the observation condition. Under the imitation condition, there were significant positive correlations among the bilateral SMA, middle frontal gyrus and STS. For the Rhythm score, there were significant positive correlations between the right cerebellum and right lingual gyrus under the observation condition. Under the imitation condition, there were significant positive correlations between the bilateral cerebellum and left STS.characteristics of the actions (Speed, Key motion, Motion type and Symmetry). In all cases, the Urge-specific areas were replicated under the imitation condition (Supplementary Figure S1).DiscussionThe present findings demonstrate positive correlations between activation of the right SMA and bilateral MCC with the strength of a subjects' self-evaluated urge to imitate meaningless hand actions. Activation in these areas could not be explained by explicit reasons for imitation or kinematic characteristics of the actions. Furthermore, PPI analyses revealed functional connectivity between the SMA and brain regions associated with imitation performance. Therefore, the present results suggest that activated regions are crucially involved in the imitation drive of unfamiliar meaningless actions and exhi.

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